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Toddlers Kidney Problems CDK

Toddlers and small kids can develop kidney problems for a variety of reasons, some of which include:

Urinary tract infections (UTIs): UTIs are common in young children and toddlres and can cause inflammation and damage to the kidneys if left untreated. So it is to be dealt urgently so that the damage can be controlled at an early stage. Symptoms of a UTI in a toddler may include frequent urination, pain or burning with urination, and fever.

Nephrotic syndrome: This is a group of symptoms that occur when the kidneys are not able to filter waste products from the blood properly. Symptoms may include swelling in the face, feet, and hands, as well as foamy urine. Toddler may seem uncomfortable but they can not tell symptoms.

Nephritis in Toddlers: This is an inflammation of the kidneys in small children that can be caused by various conditions such as lupus, IgA nephropathy, and other autoimmune diseases. Symptoms may include fever, flank pain, and blood in the urine of toddlers.

Hydronephrosis in Children: This is a condition in toddlres in which one or both of the kidneys become swollen and enlarged due to a blockage in the urinary tract. It can be caused by a birth defect or a urinary tract infection in small children. Symptoms may include abdominal pain and difficulty urinating.

Congenital kidney problems in Kids: Some children are born with kidney problems such as polycystic kidney disease, which is a genetic disorder that causes multiple cysts to form on the kidneys. Genetic disorder or inherited disease, such as Alport syndrome can also be a reason for CKD

If you suspect your toddler has a kidney problem, it is important to see a pediatrician at earlies. They will likely perform a physical examination of your child and may order urine and blood tests to check for any abnormalities in Children. They may also refer to a pediatric nephrologist for further evaluation and treatment.

Genetic disorder or inherited disease, such as Alport syndrome.

Symptoms of CKD in toddlers may include swelling in the legs and feet, fatigue, and difficulty urinating. In advanced cases, the child may experience growth failure, anemia and high blood pressure. It is important to catch and treat CKD early on, as it can lead to serious complications if left untreated.

Compare Oppo Reno 2 vs Oppo Reno 3-Specs and Features

Oppo Reno 2 vs Oppo Reno 3

Oppo reno 2 and Reno 3 both belong to the most recent and latest launches of the brand. However, as the name suggests reno 2 was an early launch dated on September 20th 2019 and reno 3 still has to be launched in march 2020. Although in some countries Oppo Reno 3 have already been launched. Both of these Oppo phones have many similiar features and specs but there are some difference too between Oppo Reno 2 and Reno 3. Both of these celluar phones have their pro version to and also their light model with slightly less price for Oppo customer who cannot afford or want to save some money. Talking about the similarities and features of both the Oppo gadgets, both mobile devices have an 8GB RAM and both constitute a fingerprint sensor on the screen. In addition to this both mobile phones are dual sim (GSM + GSM).

General comparison Between Oppo Reno 2 & Oppo Reno 3

Both Oppo Reno phones 2&3 are Feature rich mobile phones but Oppo reno 2 possesses android 9 pie and color OS 6.1 whereas reno 3 has android 10 and color OS skin on top. The earlier launched model has a battery of 4000 mAh whereas reno 3 has a battery life of 4025 mAh. Talking about the differences in the display, oppo reno 2 has a 6.55 inches full HD+(1080 x2400 pixels) dynamic AMOLED display.

On the other hand a 6.4 inches TUV rheiniland certified display is a feature of reno 3. Reno 2 features 256 GB storage space whereas reno 3 features 128 GB storage space. Both the phones remain remarkeable in comparison to one another. Moreover another difference in specs comes when we talk about the processors. The reno 2 model has a Qualcomm Snapdragon 730 G processor. Reno 3, however, has MediaTek as the processor. Oppo Reno 3 supports 5G which is a good thing to have but till now 5G is not widely available till now

Oppo Reno 2 vs Oppo Reno 3 Camera

Camera specifications show major differences and help distinguish the gadgets from one another. When one customer aims to prioritize the camera quality they would see several differences including the technical and physical ones. Oppo reno 2 has a unique feature where it has a special pop up selfie camera. When the user shifts from the back to the selfie camera, a small rectangle shaped camera pops up from the top to capture a picture. This feature, unfortunately, is not a part of reno 3. This pop up camera is 16 mega pixel whereas the selfie camera of reno 3 is 32 megapixel.

Moving on to the back camera, Reno 2 has a 4 unit rear camera system featuring a 48 megapixel Sony IMX586 sensor along with a 13 megapixel telephoto lens. This is accompanied by a 8 megapixel wide angle lens with a 116 degree field view and a 2 megapixel monochrome lens giving a ratio of 48+13+8+2 megapixel back camera. The quad ratio of reno 3 is 64+8+2+2 in which the main camera is 64 megapixels with a 8 megapixel wide-angle sensor and two 2 megapixel cameras.

Design and outlook Differences & Similarities (Reno 2 vs Reno 3)

Both the mobile phones have a width of 74.3 mm and a height of 160 mm. On the contrary the width of reno 2 is 9.5 mm and reno 3 is 7.9 mm. Both the phones also differ in weight as well where reno 2 weighs 189 grams and reno 3 is 181 grams.

The creators have provided more options in colors to the customers in the form of the most latest model as reno 3 is available in moonlight black, moonlight white, sunrise impression and blue starry night colors. Whereas reno 2 is only available in ocean blue and luminous black colors.

After its launch reno 2 has shown immense positive response and the demand for this model continues to pour in. Since oppo reno 3 has only been launched in a few countries it still is in the list to be another blockbuster launch of the oppo reno series.

Pancreas and its Disorders

Pancreas and its disorders

Anatomy and structure

The human pancreas is located behind the peritoneum at the level of the first and second lumbar vertebrae. It is an accessory digestive gland which resembles the alphabet J in structure (present obliquely) in the abdominal cavity. Thier are many problems and disorders that can cause Pancreas to malfunction.

Structurally and anatomically, the pancreas is divided into head, neck, body and tail (from right to left). The head is present within the concavity of the duodenum whereas the tail of the pancreas lies in the hilum of the spleen.

Among disorder of Pancreas a very major problem is Pancreatitis and the treatment ranges from medicines to surgery.

Relations of Pancreas

The head of the pancreas is related anteriorly to the duodenum,colon and jejunum. Posterior to the head is the terminal part of renal veins, inferior vena cava, bile duct and right crus of diaphragm.This region of Pancreas is more prone to disorders like inflammation and Pancreatic obstructions.

Anteriorly, the neck or Pancreas is related to the peritoneum and pylorus. Whereas portal vein begins and superior mesenteric vessels terminate posterior to it.

Anterior to the body peritoneum, lesser sac and stomach are present. Posteriorly several structures are present which includes the aorta, left supra renal gland, left kidney, left renal vessels and splenic vein. To its inferior the left colic flexure is present.

The Tail is related to the splenic vessels within the gastric surface of the spleen and the spleno-renal ligament.

Blood supply Of Pancreas

Arterial supply to the kidney is provided mainly by the splenic artery which runs on its superior border. However, pancrearic arteries arise from both the gastroduodenal and superior mesenteric artery. The gastroduodenal provides anterior and posterior superior pancreatoduodenal arteries. On the other hand the anterior and posterior inferior pancreatoduodenal arteries are branches of the superior mesenteric artery.

Venous drainage occurs by means of pancreatic veins which drain into the splenic and the hepatic portal vein which eventually enter the splenic vein.  Any disorder or problem of Pancreas could lead to narrowing of arteries or veins which supply it with blood.

Histological stucture of Pancreas

The pancreas is surrounded by a thin layer of capsule comprising of connective tissue and blood vessels. Internal to the capsule are present numerous intralobular and interlobular excretory ducts. Acting as an exocrine gland, the serous acini of the gland secrete digestive juices. On the other hand, the endocrine part of the gland (Islets of langerhans) is responsible for the secretion of various hormones like insulin and glucagon.

Physiological function of the pancreas

The exocrine function of the pancreas is to produce pancreatic juice containing enzymes required for digestion like amylase and lipase which digest the ingested food particles.

To study the endocrine function of the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans are of extreme importance. The islets have 4 kinds of cells where each produces a completely different hormone for secretion into the blood. The Alpha cells produce Glucagon and Beta cells produce insulin. Both these hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Delta cells produce somatostatin. The PP cells produce pancreatic polypeptide.

Diseases and problems

  1. Accessory pancreatic tissue

    The most common locations for the presence of accessory pancreatic tissue is the stomach and duodenum where this tissue may contain the glucagon and insulin producing cells.

  2. Pancreatitis and Other Pancreas Problems

    One of the main reasons for this disease is the backing up of bile in the pancreatic duct. At times the spasm of the hepatopancreatic sphincter occurs to cause the entry of bile in the pancreatic duct which also causes pancreatitis.

    Pain caused due to inflammation of pancreas is poorly localised.It is referred to the epigastric region and might also be felt posterior to the paravertebral region and around the lower thoracic vertebrae.

    Pancreatitis may also cause compression of the superior mesenteric vessels present posterior to the body of pancreas. This may cause thrombosis of the vein or aneurysm of the artery.

  3. Carcinoma Of Pancreas

    Most often the pancreatic head is effected by tumors. As a result pressure is applied to the bile ducts pressure posterior to the head. This pressure causes the bile ducts to narrow and therefore lead to persistent obstructive jaundice. Other structures that may be compressed include portal vein or stomach leading to ascites and pyloric obstruction respectively.

  4. Annular pancreas

    This is a congenital abnormality which occurs in neonates during their development in the mothers womb. Ring like pancreatic tissue surrounds the duodenum to cause obstruction. This occurs primarily due to the formation of bifid ventral pancreatic bud in the development of the foregut and midgut.

  5. Pancreatic rupture Problem

    Even though the pancreas is centrally located and well protected it can be ruptured due to a several abdominal crushing injury like that of the impact of the steering wheel during a car accident. Rupture leads to the exposure and spread of the pancreatic juice to the adjacent regions leading to invasion. Eventual digestion of the tissues occurs which causes severe pain in the patient.

Types Of Immunotherapy

The different types of cancer immunotherapy for cancer treatment

Immunotherapy is a kind of cancer treatment that helps the immune system of the patients to fight or cure cancer . Recently many types of immunotherapy medicines have been approved for multiple types of cancer. Some times immunotherapy can work wonders and can cure a patient which was at the very end stage and was incurable with traditional chemo or radiotherapy.

Immunotherapy is a process in which the immune system of the cancer patients is stimulated so that it can work smarter and harder for attacking the cancer cells. Some times the immune system is recognizing the cancer but it is not able to wipe cancer off due to slow response. There are different types of cancer immunotherapy that is considered as a vital part of cancer treatment that works in different manner for boosting the immune system of the patients so that it does not get attacked by the cancer cells. Some times immunotherapic medicines take the brake of the immune system to ward of the disease.

Even with the most dangerous types of Cancers such as lung cancer the immunotherapy have shown that it can enhance the survival rate in patients. There are different cancer treatment approaches that are used for treating the diseases as each has distinct mechanism of action that has been especially designed for
boosting and restoring the immune function of the body in various ways for accomplishing the cancer treatment journey.

The different types of cancer immunotherapy help in treating a wide variety of cancers as these are promising approaches that has been approved by FDA and
some are being tested in the clinical trials.

Monoclonal antibodies Immunotherapy-

This is a kind of immunotherapy that involves the use of drugs that has been especially designed for binding to the specific targets in the body. These drugs eventually help in causing immune response for destroying the cancer cells which is done when the cancer cells are destroyed and it is also known as
targeted therapy.

Cytokines Immunotherapy-
This type of immunotherapy is one of the most effective cancer immunotherapy as it involve the use of proteins that are made by the cells of the body as it also helps in playing a vital role in the normal immune responses. This protein also enhances the ability to respond to the cancer of the immune system as the two most common types of cytokines includes interleukins and interferons which helps in treating cancer.

Adoptive Immunotherapy-

T cell transfer- it is an anti cancer approach that is responsible for enhancing the natural cancer fighting ability of T cells of the body which are accomplished when the immune system cells are removed. The immune system cells are then growth and undergo changes outside the body after which it is re-fused into the body of the patients. Another type of T cell therapay is CART. The treatment helps in reducing the immune cells so that the treatment will be effective in treating cancer within a short span of time.

Treatment vaccines- BCG

This type of immunotherapy for cancer is also known as Bacillus Calmette Guerin is considered as the most popular treatment vaccine that works against cancer as it boosts the response of the immune system to the cancer cells as it is a weakened form of bacteria that is known to cause tuberculosis. It is a kind of immunotherapy that is especially used for treating bladder cancer as it causes immune response against the cancer cells and it is being researched for being used for treatment of other types of cancer.

Cancer Immunotherapy For Advanced Tumors having mismatch repair defect

Recently FDA have approved immunotherapy which is a breakthrough for Cancer and advanced malignancies. Uptil now FDA only approved the immunotherapy drugs for the site where the tumor originated but now one can get these highly effective drugs after the cancer tumor is positive for mismatch repair defect. This is a very good news for the patient with rare malignancies which does not have any cure as of now.

Now even they even can be treated if they have mismatch repair defect in their genes. Immunotherapy is gaining momentum with the passage of time and now there are hundreds of clinical trials across the world testing immunotherapy drugs for Cancer going on around the world.

As of right now these new drugs are very high price and is beyond the reach of most patients if there insurance does not cover the treatment but with the passage of time this will definitely change. More and more Pharma are joining race to bring new immunotherapic drugs into the market and its now billions of dollar industry.

Anti-Cancer Foods

Anti-Cancer Foods

The number of people diagnose with cancer still continue to rise despite the effort that health practitioners putting to empower the public about cancer and how to prevent it. According to research published in thousand of scientific articles certain foods like Garlic, Ginger, Berries, Cruciferous vegetables, Green Tea and vegetables are anti-cancer and can prevent and protect the body from developing Cancer. Although this terrible disease does not distinguish between young and old but still as the person grow older the chance of getting Cancer also increases. One main factor that has contributed to increase in cancer incidence is the food that people include in their diet. The chance of getting Cancer goes to maximum when one cross 50 years of age. Unlike the past where people used to embrace healthy foods, nowadays most people prefer to eat highly processed foods and junk foods that are not good for our health. Although scientist think that cancer can some times come from the genetics but still many types and incidences of Cancer varies with Environmental changes and dietary changes. The food that you include in your diet can increase or lower your chances of getting cancer. In this article, we are going to focus on anti-cancer foods that you need to include in your diet.

1. Garlic and its Anti-Cancer Effects

Several clinical studies that have been conducted have shown people who include garlic on their meals are less likely to develop various types of cancer especially those that are related to digestive organs like the stomach, esophagus as well as the colon. Garlic is also good for inflammation as it is also a big culprit of Cancer development. Garlic contain special ingredients that help to keep cancer causing substances at bay. Garlic have anti Cancer effects which prevent cancer cells from multiplying uncontrollably. Experts recommend that you should include garlic in your diet to decrease your chances of developing cancer.

2. Berries and its Anti-Cancer Effects

Do you know that berries is Anti-Cancer and can help your body fight various types of cancers? As tasty as they are, berries contain very powerful antioxidants that help to frustrate a naturally occurring process that create free radical that can damage your cells. Various scientific studies have also shown that berries contain certain compounds that help to prevent cancer cells from spreading to other parts of the body. This spread of Cancer to other parts of the body is called metastases and berries stop this process. Including berries in your diet will go a long way in helping to fight and prevent cancer.

3. Cruciferous vegetables and its Anti-Cancer Effects

Cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower contain very vital components that are particularly helpful in helping your body fight cancer. Research have actually found that certain components found in these vegetables can help fight free radicals that can damage your cell DNA turning them cancerous. They have also been clinically proven slow down aging of cells and to help protect you from chemicals that cause cancer as well as slow the growth of tumors. They also help build immunity of the body against cancer. In addition to that, they also help cancer cells to die a precess which is called apoptosis.

4. Green tea and its Anti-Cancer Effects

Green tea is rich in antioxidant known as catechins that has been clinically proven to help fight cancer. Some people consider green tea as a Miracle food for Cancer. Various laboratory studies have shown that catechins, an ingredient that green tea contains in abundance can help prevent free radicals from damaging other body cells. This can prevent ordinary cells so that they can not convert to cancerous. In addition to that, this ingredient also helps reduce the growth of tumors that are cancerous.

5. Whole grains and its Anti-Cancer Effects

A research that was conducted by the American Institute for Cancer Research found out that whole grains contain a lot of component that are very beneficial in fighting cancer. Such components include antioxidants and fiber. Whole grain enhances natrual ability of the immune system to halt progression. It has also been found that people who include whole grain in their diet are at lower risk of developing any type of Cancer.

6. Leafy green vegetables and its Anti-Cancer Effects

Leafy green vegetables such as lettuce and spinach are good source of lutein, antioxidants as well as beta-carotene which are very beneficial in fighting cancer. Various scientific studies have shown that leafy green vegetables help to limit the growth of cancer cells and even can some time reverse cancer or at least slow down the progression of disease.

At the end it would be worth mentioning that Cancer is not just one disease but it is many type of diseases . No two Cancers are same for example kidney Cancer and Liver Cancer are complete different and have different treatment regimes. With food one can just reduce the chances but one should immediately contact their doctors and does not solely rely on foods for cure.

Walmart To Challenge Amazon Prime

Walmart To Challenge Amazon Prime

The biggest retailer(Walmart) is all set to take on biggest online seller(Amazon) soon. Customers will be the one who will benefit with this competition. According to the news Walmart next focus is to increase its online sales and it will be launching a service called Tahoe which will offer free shipping to customer all over United states. Currently amazon offers amazon prime by membership and customers gets free shipping for a year on most products if they are amazon prime member.

This move will definately give a challenge to amazon as it have sustained its online sales due to prime members ordering online again and again. Walmart plan is to introduce this free shipping services perhaps at half the price that a customer have to pay for amazon prime. This Walmart product was due to launch last year but some how it was delayed and now they are planning to launch soon. Soon the customers may see a new Walmart website with more eCommerce friendly interface and with more options like customer reviews and more product pictures with different dimensions as these are the features which make amazon unique and favorite for most of its customers.

In terms of infrastructure Walmart is already ahead of Amazon as it already have stores scattered all over USA from where they can distribute the products. They already have a loyal customer base so one must expect that if Walmart did every thing right there is no reason that they fail and who knows that may be in future Walmart also makes a marketplace in future where the third party sellers and different merchants can also sell their products using Walmart marketplace.

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